Rolul patogenilor plantelor în pădurile seculare

Autori

  • Ecaterina Fodor Universitatea din Oradea, Facultatea de Protecția Mediului, b-dul. Gen. Magheru, nr. 26, Oradea, România
  • Ioan Ovidiu Hâruța Universitatea din Oradea, Facultatea de Protecția Mediului, b-dul. Gen. Magheru, nr. 26, Oradea, România

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4316/bf.2022.005

Cuvinte cheie:

păduri seculare, fitopatogeni, biodiversitate, perturbări biotice, ecologia bolilor, rețele de interacțiune a speciilor

Rezumat

Pădurile seculare sunt considerate structuri de referință ale naturalității și modele în comparațiile cu pădurile gospodărite, comparații care au dus la dezbateri în privința biodiversității, structurii și dinamicii ce au polarizat specialiștii în conservare și practicienii silvici. Patogenii plantelor sunt de regulă ignorați ca și componente ale biodiversității, percepția comună asupra lor fiind legată de rolul lor de factori de stres biotic. Totuși, patogenii care stabilesc câteva grupări funcționale (patogeni biotrofi sau necrotrofi, patogeni endofitici, specii sapro-parazite, în special ale lemnului) în păduri cu grad înalt de naturalitate așa cum sunt pădurile seculare stabilesc rețele de interacțiune cu alte câteva grupe funcționale de organisme ca hiperparaziții, consumatorii, specii care favorizează patogenii, specii indirect oportuniste (așa cum sunt speciile care trăiesc în scorburi), specii saprotrofe precum și specii mutualiste. Fiind în legătură cu arborii bătrâni (o categorie rară sau inexistentă în pădurile gosăpodărite) sau specii periclitate de plante din păduri, fitopatogenii devin astfel indicatori de biodiversitate și naturalitate. Gradientul care merge de la specii saprotrofe, la sapro-patogeni și specii generaliște/specializate de patogeni ce caracterizează ecosistemele forestiere este în mare parte în legătură cu lemnul și scoarța arborilor, fiind conectat la circuitul nutrienților care este un proces de nivel ecosistemic. Atâta vreme cât procesul patogen este menținut la nivelul mortalității de bază a arborilor, patogenii joacă rolul unor factori de control care contribuie direct și indirect la biodiversitatea pădurilor. Progresele actuale în ecologia bolilor, în studiile integrative asupra biodiversității și apariția unui cadru holistic ce modelează ecologia modernă aduc în prim plan patogenii endemici sau rari ca fiind factori de control ai populațiilor de plante, ca și componente ale nișei fenotipice a acestora precum și a biodiversității globale, ca și furnizori potențiali de servicii ecologice (surse de medicamente) și componente ale rețelelor ecologice complexe. Cu toate acestea, comparațiile dintre pădurile seculare și cele gospodărite ar trebui focalizate pe echitabilitatea speciile de patogeni (care este ridicată în pădurile seculare și scăzută în cele gospodărite) și nu în mod special pe bogăția de specii. Cu toate acestea, există fitopatogeni responsabili de perturbări majore biotice în pădurile din întreaga lume cum sunt patogenii  invazivi, alohtoni sau emergenți amenințând astfel atât pădurile seculare cât și pădurile gospodărite.

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2022-07-29

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Fodor, E., & Hâruța, I. O. (2022). Rolul patogenilor plantelor în pădurile seculare. Bucovina Forestieră, 22(1), 41-59. https://doi.org/10.4316/bf.2022.005

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