Eficacitatea unor pesticide în prevenirea atacului de Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), în condiții de laborator

Autori

  • Nicolai Olenici Institutul Național de Cercetare-Dezvoltare în Silvicultură ''Marin Drăcea, SCDEP Câmpulung Moldovenesc, 73bis, Calea Bucovinei, 725100 Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Romania. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7555-4372

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4316/bf.2022.015

Cuvinte cheie:

Xylosandrus germanus, Btk, acetamiprid, Quassia amara extract, spinosad, mortalitate, eficacitate, efecte subletale

Rezumat

Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894) este o specie de gândaci de ambrozie invazivă, care s-a răspândit deja în cea mai mare parte a teritoriului României și care reprezintă un potențial dăunător pentru silvicultură, pomicultură și viticultură. Obiectivul cercetărilor prezentate în lucrare a fost identificarea unor pesticide utilizabile în UE și acceptate de FSC, care să fie eficace în prevenirea atacurilor cauzate de această specie. În cadrul unui experiment de laborator, organizat într-un bloc complet randomizat cu cinci variante și opt repetiții, s-au testat patru insecticide: BactoSpeine DF (54% Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurtsaki), Mospilan 20 SG (20% acetamiprid), Konflic (50% extract de Quassia amara + 50% săruri de potasiu din acizi grași) și Laser 240 SC (240 g/l spinosad). S-a studiat mortalitatea cauzată de pesticide, reducerea intensității atacului și efectele subletale (asupra fecunditatății insectelor și a dezvoltării descendenților). Toate pesticidele au fost administrate în concentrație de 1% (excepție făcând doar primul, aplicat în concentrație de 10%) pe suprafața unor segmente subțiri de tulpini de fag (ST), care au fost scufundate timp de două minute în soluțiile preparate și apoi au fost lăsate o oră să se zvânte. Pentru a fi atractive față de insecte, anterior tratării ST au fost ținute timp de 24 ore în soluție apoasă de etanol 48%. ST au fost puse în borcane transparente, fiecare cu câte 20 femele de X. germanus colectate în aceeași zi din teren. Experimentul s-a derulat pe parcursul a 32 zile, timp în care temperatura medie în locul de testare a fost de 24,1° C, umiditatea relativă de 81,6% și lumina de maximum 250 lucși, 15 ore lumină și 9 ore întuneric. Mortalitatea cumulată a insectelor a fost cuprinsă între 10,6% (la martor) și 61,9% (la spinodad), diferențe semnificative înregistrându-se doar între acetamiprid și spinosad, pe de o parte, și celelalte variante, pe de altă parte. Intensitatea atacului a variat de la 8,0 ± 1,9 galerii/ST (media ± abaterea standard) (la spinosad), până la 18,7 ± 1,1 galerii/ST (la martor) și diferențe semnificative s-au înregistrat tot numai între acetamiprid și spinosad, pe de o parte, și celelalte variante, pe de altă parte. Deoarece unele femele au murit sau au părăsit galeriile după ce au pătruns în lemn, numărul de femele cu descendenți per ST (FDST) a fost puțin mai mic decât intensitatea infestării. Sub toate cele trei aspecte (mortalitate, reducerea intensității infestării și reducerea FDST), cel mai eficace a fost spinosadul (57,4%, 57,2% și respectiv 66,7%), urmat de acetamiprid (46,6%, 53,5%, 60,5%), celelalte două produse având eficacități sub 10-20%. Numărul mediu de descendeți/ST a fost cuprins între 165,1 ± 105, 6 (la acetamiprid) și 265,0 ± 84,5 (la martor), dar diferențele dintre variante nu au fost asigurate statistic la p = 0,05. Fecunditatea femelelor care au supraviețuit interacțiunii cu pesticidele a variat de la 13,1 ± 6,5 descendenți/femelă (la Konflic), până la 23,9 ± 11,3 descendenți/femelă (la spinosad). Niciunul dintre pesticidele nu a determinat o reducere a fecundității, iar spinosadul a determinat chiar o creștere semnificativă. La data sistării experimentului, 61% dintre descendenții femelelor folosite în experiment ajunseseră în stadiul de adult, dar descendenții femelelor care au venit în contact cu acetamiprid sau cu spinosad au avut o ușoară întârziere în dezvoltare față de cei din celelalte variante, ponderea adulților în totalul descendenților din aceste variante fiind semnificativ diferită de cea de la varianta martor. Rezultatele obținute indică faptul că – în concentrațiile folosite – doar două dintre produsele testate (Mospilan 20 SG și Laser 240 SC) au avut o eficacitate suficient de bună pentru a fi luate în considerare în experimente de teren. S-au observat unele efecte subletale interesante ale spinosadului și acetamipridului (stimularea fecundității și posibila frânare a dezvoltării preimaginale), necunoscute anterior în cazul acestei specii, și care necesită a fi investigate suplimentar.

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2022-10-19

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Olenici, N. (2022). Eficacitatea unor pesticide în prevenirea atacului de Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), în condiții de laborator. Bucovina Forestieră, 22(2), 97-115. https://doi.org/10.4316/bf.2022.015

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